Historic Terrace Theatre

The Terrace Theatre, located at 3508 France Avenue in Robbinsdale, Minnesota was designed by noted theatre architects Liebenberg & Kaplan, for prominent Twin Cities’ movie exhibitors Sydney and William Volk. The modernist Terrace Theatre marked a break from the design language used in Liebenberg & Kaplan’s earlier indoor theater designs, which were typically in the Art Deco and Streamline Moderne styles. The Terrace Theatre is an outstanding example of modern theater design, is a distinct design within the body of work of Liebenberg & Kaplan, and is identified by historians as one of the first “ultramodern theatres in America.”[1] Upon opening, the Terrace received critical acclaim for its “bold architectural lines [and] extensive patron services.”[2]

Liebenberg & Kaplan

Architect Jacob “Jack” Liebenberg received his undergraduate architecture degree from the University of Minnesota and went on to earn his master’s degree from Harvard University via the prestigious McKim Fellowship. While at Harvard, Liebenberg was awarded the Prix de Rome, however World War I prevented him from traveling to Europe to take advantage of the prize. Following the war, he returned to Minneapolis and taught at the University of Minnesota in the School of Architecture. In the early 1920s, Liebenberg entered into a partnership with fellow University of Minnesota alum Seeman Kaplan.[3]

The partnership, known as Liebenberg & Kaplan, became one of the most successful and prolific architectural firms based in the Twin Cities. Liebenberg & Kaplan designed a broad variety of building types, became particularly renowned as theater architects, and were frequently sought after as architectural acousticians. The firm first entered the movie theater design business by remodeling the Arion Theater in Northeast Minneapolis (demolished). Liebenberg & Kaplan’s big break came near the end of the 1920s, when its design for the Temple Israel Synagogue (1928) in southeast Minneapolis caught the eyes of Twin Cities theater owners Rubenstein and Kaplan, who immediately commissioned the firm to design the Granada Theater (1928, now the Suburban World) in Minneapolis.[4]

By 1951, Liebenberg & Kaplan had designed over 200 theaters.[5] These commissions were spread throughout the Midwest. The majority of the theaters designed by the firm were in the Art Deco or Streamline Moderne styles—but their final two indoor theater projects – the 1956 remodeling of the Riverview in Minneapolis (originally designed by Liebenberg & Kaplan in 1948) and the Terrace Theatre in Robbinsdale, were designed in a modern style.[6] Both theaters were projects that Liebenberg & Kaplan worked on with theatre proprietors Sydney and William Volk.

Sidney and William Volk’s Twin Cities Theatre Empire

The Volk brothers emigrated from Lithuania to Minneapolis, Minnesota in the early 1920s and began their movie house career in the 1930s. The movie theater business was one of the few industries that thrived during the Great Depression. Their early business operated as the corporation “Minnehaha Theatres,” and, by 1938, the Volks owned the Camden (1932), Nile (1926; 1936 remodel), and Falls (1931) in Minneapolis, the New Ray (1930s) in St. Paul, and the Robin (1938) in suburban Robbinsdale.[7] Liebenberg & Kaplan designed the Camden and following a 1934 fire, re-designed the Nile in 1936.

Sidney and William’s portfolio growth stagnated when the United States entered World War II and President Roosevelt established the War Production Board (WPB). The WPB was charged with overseeing the use of limited materials and resources during the war years and prohibited nonessential construction—including the construction of movie theaters—between 1942 and 1944.[8]

Like theater exhibitors nationwide, Sidney and William Volk had shelved new construction during World War II, including their plans for a 1,000-seat theater in Robbinsdale, to be called the Terrace, which was intended to build on the success of the town’s smaller Robin Theater.

When WPB building bans were lifted, the Volk brothers turned their attention first to building the Riverview Theater in south Minneapolis with Liebenberg & Kaplan serving as architects. Completed in 1948, the Riverview was designed in the Streamline Moderne style, typical of many of Liebenberg & Kaplan’s preceding theaters.[9]

Three years later, in 1951, the Volk brothers once again called on Liebenberg & Kaplan for a theater design—this time to finally move forward with the plans for a new theater in Robbinsdale. With this new theatre, the Volks took a leap of faith, approving an unprecedented modern design and constructing one of the first ultramodern theaters in America – The Terrace Theatre.

Action!: Construction of the Terrace Theatre

The Volk’s decision to construct the Terrace coincided with a larger post-war building and population boom in Robbinsdale. Like suburbs throughout the country, in the 1940s and 1950s Robbinsdale experienced dramatic growth as soldiers returned from Europe and the Pacific and constructed homes for their young families.[10] Robbinsdale grew so rapidly that the school district had to construct 18 elementary schools to meet the needs of its school age residents.[11] In response to its residential development, Robbinsdale also experienced a significant commercial expansion. The city’s historic downtown served as a shopping district and attracted a Montgomery Ward and two supermarkets in the early 1950s.

The new theater was to be located at the corner of 36th and West Broadway, on a ten-acre plot which was the site of a former tavern and service station.[12] An undated schematic design for the sprawling ten-acre site, drawn by Liebenberg & Kaplan, reveals beautifully landscaped parking areas, shops, walks, a swimming pool, and play area.[13] As architecture critic Larry Millett notes: “Liebenberg produced a[n] … exciting design for the theater that would be his midcentury masterpiece—the magnificent Terrace.”[14] While the eventual site development lacked some of the more elaborate elements of Liebenberg & Kaplan’s schematic plan, the important elements of the Terrace’s design did reach construction.

The theater was situated at the rear of the site, “on a rise overlooking a surrounding portion of the countryside,” and overlooking scenic Lake Crystal.[15] The Terrace was “set back into a shopping center plot by several hundred feet” to allow space for an intended mall to be constructed (the Terrace Mall was eventually constructed in 1980).[16] The theatre’s siting meant that the set-back also allowed sufficient space for 1,000 or more cars to park, a feature essential to the postwar, automobile-centric suburbs.

Construction drawings from 1949 identify key features of the design that were translated from Liebenberg & Kaplan’s early schematic drawings to reality: a reinforced concrete and steel frame building, faced with brick and stone veneer, and topped with a steel roof deck. Most striking is a towering sign tower of brick set off with backlit glass and topped with mirrored signs proclaiming “Terrace” to all of Robbinsdale.

News sources identify the building as costing between $600,000 and $1,000,000 to construct.[17] The Terrace Theatre opened for business on May 23, 1951 with a showing of Spencer Tracy and Elizabeth Taylor’s Father’s Little Dividend.[18]

“A Truly Architectural Wonder”[19]

The Terrace Theatre marked a break in Liebenberg & Kaplan’s earlier indoor theater designs, which were primarily Art Deco and Streamline Moderne in style. The Terrace Theatre is an outstanding example of midcentury modern theater design and is a distinct design within the body of work of these renowned Minneapolis theater architects.

Architecturally, the Terrace Theatre embraced a number of design features that were popular in midcentury corporate and roadside design—geometric forms, “dramatically tilted windows,” a paneled glass tower, and large-scale eye-catching neon signage.[20] The materials used throughout the Terrace—brick, stone, wood, and copper –are material choices that reflect midcentury residential trends more than the sterility of International Style or the free-form drama of Atomic Age commercial buildings.[21] The warm and elegant residential character of the Terrace reflects the Volk brother’s efforts to market the Terrace to housewives and the brother’s decision to embrace the arrival of the television rather than compete for its audience.

To that end, the interior of the Terrace Theatre featured a spacious foyer, lounges, and a television room. The 1,300-seat auditorium included two sound-proof crying rooms for parents with unhappy children.

After securing admission, movie-goers entered the Terrace’s foyer, which was a grandiose space with a ceiling that was stepped to follow the stadium line of the auditorium. Niches were carved out of the main lobby space for a candy counter and refreshment bar. Fine fixtures and finishes were present throughout the space—from the walnut-clad popcorn machine to the particularly notable copper "wishing well" drinking fountain. Even the carpeting was especially chosen for its high-level of refinement. Furnished by A & M Karagheusian rugs, a rug manufacturer headquartered in Manhattan, the Turkish loomed rugs contributed to the luxurious ambiance of the foyer and auditorium, as they did to other prominent buildings including the Radio City Music Hall and the United States Supreme Court building.[22]

Immediately off of the foyer, the sunken lounge and the adjacent smoking lounge received considerable press as a unique feature of a modern theater. Designed in the fashion of a “greatly enlarged and impeccably decorated midcentury home,” the lounge was “rimmed off by a low stone wall that encloses a tier of cushioned seats …[it featured] a copper-hooded fireplace and an array of colorful plant boxes. A dramatic blending of inside and outside treatment [was] achieved by the liberal use of cut stone, redwood and oak in the interior and by slanting window walls.”[23] The sunken lounge was served by the candy counter in the foyer.

Located opposite the foyer was the Terrace’s television room. This innovative space was a nod to the increased presence and sociocultural impact of the home television. It was included for the convenience and novelty of the theater patrons. The television lounge was described in the BoxOffice feature article on the Terrace as getting “a steady play from patrons at the end of the early evening program. When they drop in here to watch television for a while before going home, they become perfect prospects for soft drinks and snack types of food served from the bar at the end of the theatre.”[24] In a period when movie theatres across the country were closing due to low attendance and competing with the television for viewers, Liebenberg & Kaplan and the Volk brothers elected to embrace the television as a way to extend visitors’ movie-going experience.

The single-screen auditorium had a semicircular stage, approached by carpeted steps around its perimeter, broken only by square stone planters. The 1,300 auditorium seats were supplied by American Seating Co. The 26-foot screen, outfitted by Walker HI Plastic, was contained within an easel-type frame and was covered with a curtain, furnished by National Theatre Supply, in place of the conventional theatre proscenium arch. Acousti-Celotex, an innovative soundproofing material first used by Liebenberg & Kaplan at the Granada Theater in 1928, played an important acoustical role in the auditorium. Also unique to the Terrace auditorium was the glassed off “crying room,” at the rear of the space, “which accommodated infants not enthralled by the on-screen entertainment,” while still allowing their parents to watch the show.[25]

Even the restrooms were “gorgeously appointed” with luxurious materials and finishes.[26] A large powder room for female patrons was painted in “tones of gray and rust with marble counters,” while the men’s restroom featured a redwood smoking lounge.[27]

Other unique features of the Terrace included three garage stalls in the basement; a system of dumbwaiters serving a candy counter and soda bar from the spacious refreshment storage rooms; two large private offices for the Volk brothers; and, at the exterior, the stone movie poster panels adjacent to the driveway entrances.[28] At a time when home air conditioning was still largely unaffordable, the Terrace’s year-round air conditioning, supplied by United States Air Conditioning Corporation equipment, and 52 degree well water, were also a feature touted in several publications.[29]

“A Gem of the Lakes”

The Terrace Theatre opened in May of 1951 to a great deal of acclaim—and a bit of incredulity.  A BusinessWeek article from August 1951 seemed to think Sidney and William were impulsive and irrational regarding their decision to build the Terrace:

Last May, two Minneapolis movie owners pulled a stunt that made every other exhibitor in the area decide they had blown their lids sky high. In nearby Robbinsdale, Minn., William and Sidney Volk opened a movie theater that had cost them close to $1 million to build. Since television seemed to have put the movie business solidly on the skids, this looked like an elaborate way to commit suicide.[30]

BusinessWeek aside, the Terrace Theatre received significant positive recognition in local and national newspapers, popular culture magazines, trade journals, and industry publications. BoxOffice, a national theater industry journal, published a five-page feature titled “A Gem of the Lakes,” touting the Terrace as giving “a feeling of fortress modernism. Blocky lines, broad expanses of large-paned windows and a massive light tower topped by the name sign express strength. The smaller worm’s eye view…demonstrates more grace and interesting detail of line.”[31]

The 1954-1955 Theatre Catalog, the “Annual International Authority” on theatre use and development, included a pictorial and editorial presentation of the air conditioning technology in the Terrace.[32] Family Circle requested permission to include photographs that would show eye-catching features for mothers such as “the sunken lounge, the nursery room, coffee being served, and so on,” for their “It’s the American Way” column.[33] Institutions, a magazine for the service industry, also published a feature on the Terrace in March of 1952, which is not surprising considering that, in addition to designing the building, Liebenberg & Kaplan prepared designs for the Terrace’s uniforms.[34]

Most importantly, perhaps, was the coverage that the Terrace Theatre received from local newspapers. One advertisement gushed about the theater,

The Terrace Theatre tower…soaring into the heavens…symbolizes the most modern achievement in the world of entertainment. Majestically situated on 10 beautifully landscaped acres at West Broadway and 36th Ave. N., the TERRACE is an ARCHITECTURAL WONDER you must SEE to fully appreciate! Every novel detail is designed to heighten your pleasure as you enjoy an extraordinary adventure in the finest entertainment. See it! You’ll say “Out of this world.[35]

This type of advertisement hyped the novelty and unique character of the building more than the quality of the picture show.

The press for the Terrace proved successful. With parking for 1,000 cars and seats for 1,300, the Volk brothers planned the theater to serve the entire metropolitan area of the Twin Cities. In the first year of operation, theater records showed that 2% of attendees came from St. Paul, 15% came from Robbinsdale, and the majority of guests came to the theater from a 50-mile radius. A guest register, available for all patrons to sign, contained signatures from 25,000 people from every state of the union, Canada, and many foreign countries.[36]

“America’s Finest Theatre at Your Very Door”

The Terrace Theatre seemed to defy the shrinking attendance trend that was sweeping the movie theater industry in the postwar period. According to Dave Kenney, author of Twin Cities Picture Show, movie theater attendance peaked nationwide in 1946 and, between 1951 and1953, a dozen theaters in Minneapolis and St. Paul shut down.[37] Many factors were associated with the declining attendance, including economic factors such as increased spending on home appliances, and sociological or cultural factors, including the infiltration of the home television. In an effort to thwart dwindling box office receipts, “local theater owners turned to marketing gimmicks—some old and some new—in an effort to drum up business.”[38] One of the efforts that theater owners undertook was to travel to the Terrace to see what the Volk brothers had done to draw such acclaim.

Part country club and part theater, the Terrace was a new phenomenon: “Let’s face it,” Sidney Volk said, “the theater business has changed, and we’ve built a place to take care of the needs of today. We now have what the public wants. The box office tells the story.”[39] With its 1,000-car parking lot, sunken lounge, snack bar, soundproof crying rooms, television room, and spacious lobby overlooking a landscaped terrace, the Terrace was an innovation in movie theater design.[40] The Volks were confident that their “luxurious atomic age picture houses” would continue to draw plenty of customers—especially women.[41] “If a woman has been at home tending her kids all day, washing, ironing, and cooking, it’s going to take more than television to keep her there at night,” Sidney Volk observed. “As long as we have women in this world, people are going to go out. Nobody ever bought a mink coat for his wife to keep warm.” In addition to targeting female customers, the Volk brothers saw the theater as a community gathering place. Sidney’s reputation as a “phrasemaker and philosopher” was highlighted in another news article: “There are so many wonderful people in the world! And you can’t meet ‘em by the television set. You have to go out and talk to them.”[42]

The Volk brothers had a reputation for service at the Terrace Theatre—which caught the attention of the “Hollywood,” a nationally syndicated column in the Corsicana Daily Sun:

My cousin, Gordon Maynard, talks volumes about the Terrace Theater in Robbinsdale, Minnesota, just outside of Minneapolis. Two brothers, Sidney and William Volk, own it.
“When you enter the theater,” said Gordon, “there’s a counter in the foyer with an attractive young lady telling you the picture is starting or that you’re early and would you like to go into the lounge and be served with hot coffee, doughnuts, or sandwiches with no extra charge.”
The night that Gordon was there two people came in late and the show was nearly over, but the Volks ran the whole picture for just two people. Sidney Volk said, “We stay open until the last person leaves—We never want a dissatisfied patron.”
“So, if you go to Minnesota, visit Mr. Volk,” said Gordon.”[43]

The theater was wildly successful, which seemed to spur Sidney Volk’s dreams for the ultimate movie-going experience. Local news articles also portrayed Sidney’s futuristic ideas:

“Free coffee?” said Sid Volk, “It’s nice. But you haven’t seen anything. Some day [sic] I’ll give them caviar…I’m going to build one some day that’ll be out of this world. You’ll drive right inside, and an elevator will take your car away to be parked. There’ll be a big smorgasbord with caviar. It’ll be magnificent.”[44]

Since the ultramodern Terrace Theatre had industry-astounding receipts in its first years of operation, the Volk brothers hired Liebenberg & Kaplan in 1956 to remodel the Riverview in Minneapolis in a similar midcentury modern style. The new lobby space was intended to reflect a living room and even included a separate TV lounge, much like the Terrace. Amenities were ample: "Dunbar tables, McCobb stools, Herman Miller divans and chairs, walnut panels imposed on light wood, graceful modern lamps, stunning draperies."[45] The Riverview Theater continues operation today and is one of the few remaining single-screen cinemas in the Twin Cities.

Roll Credits

With the exception of the Riverview renovation, the Terrace Theatre was the last indoor movie theater for both the Volk brothers and Liebenberg & Kaplan and, as Larry Millett professed in his book Minnesota Modern: Architecture and Life Midcentury, “there is little chance that a movie theater of its quality will ever be built again in Minnesota.”[46]

During the later years of their career, Sidney and William had owned and operated their theatres under a smattering of corporation names—the Minnehaha Theatre Corp., the Robbinsdale Amusement Corp., Volk Bros. Theatres, and the Four Minneapolis Theatres Company. Throughout their career, Sidney and William Volk were active in various organizations in the industry, including the Variety Clubs of America and the Allied States Association of Motion Picture Exhibitors, established to serve and protect independent theater ownership.[47] Sidney was also elected to the National Association of Theater Owners (NATO) board of directors in 1967.[48]

The Volk brothers—William died in 1973 and Sidney in 1982, both at the age of 74—enjoyed the twilight of their career at the Terrace, where

[Their] handsome interconnected offices…featured custom millwork, built-in desks and cabinets and gorgeous full-height corner windows. And when business was slow or the mood struck them, they could wander out into the hall, climb a few steps and enter the world of the movies through their own private entrance. It must have been a wonderful life.”[49]

The Terrace Theatre underwent some changes to respond to advancements in technology in order to maintain attendance. In the early 1960s, the interior was remodeled some, and “modern intrusions as video games have mucked up the lobby a bit.”[50] In the 1970s, the auditorium sound equipment was updated. In 1980, a strip mall moved in next door, obliterating the Terrace’s views of Lake Crystal. Eventually, other more conveniently located cinemas siphoned off suburban moviegoers.

According to Millett, “Despite its superb design, the Terrace ultimately could not survive changes in the movie industry that made its huge auditorium more of a liability than an asset.”[51] As a result, after Midcontinent Theater Company of Minneapolis bought the Terrace in 1987, the most dramatic interior change took place. In 1988, the Terrace’s auditorium— the largest still operating in the Twin Cities—was partitioned and turned into a triplex.[52] The main auditorium was horizontally cut in half, and two small balconies were separated and turned into small screening rooms seating 200 each, and the lower floor functioning as a 600-seat theater. Todd Frager, manager of the Terrace hoped three screens would enable the theater to draw larger crowds, especially on weekends, but knew others would resist the change: “People around here really like this theater…It seems every week somebody will come in here and say he remembers seeing matinees here as a kid. There’s no doubt this theater is something special.”[53]

The theater shuttered its doors in 1999 and has been vacant since.

[1] Ibid.

[2] “A Gem of the Lakes,” BoxOffice, August 4, 1951, 14.

[3] Alan Lathrop, Minnesota Architects: A Biographical Dictionary (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010), 139.

[4] National Register of Historic Places, Hollywood Theater, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, Minnesota, National Register #13001145.

[5] “Liebenberg & Kaplan Papers, 1919-1969,” Finding aid at the Northwest Architectural Archives, Anderson Library, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. http://discover.lib.umn.edu/cgi/f/findaid/findaid-idx?c=umfa;cc=umfa;rgn=main;view=text;didno=naa036

[6] Lisa D. Schrenk, “The Atmospheric and Art Deco Theaters of Jack Liebenberg,” 32-36; “Liebenberg & Kaplan Papers: 1919-1969,” finding aid for the Northwest Architectural Archives, accessed February 14, 2013, http://special.lib.umn.edu/findaid/xml/naa036.xml.

[7] The Camden Theatre was designed in 1931 by Liebenberg & Kaplan. The Nile Theatre was built in 1926 and, after being destroyed by fire in 1934, was rebuilt in 1936 based on a design by Liebenberg & Kaplan after being destroyed in 1934. The Falls Theatre was built ca. 1917 and was originally named the Brandt Theatre; it was renamed the Ha Ha Theatre in 1921. The New Ray was built ca. 1918 as the Ray Theatre and was demolished in the 1960s. The Robin Theater (non-extant), was the first recorded movie theater in Robbinsdale. The Robin, which was located on the southwest corner of 42nd and West Broadway, was originally called the “Crystal Theater” and built in 1916 by William J. Muller. In 1931, the 350-seat theater underwent a major renovation and, when it reopened, showed talking motion pictures. The Volk brothers purchased the Crystal Theatre in 1938 and renamed it the Robin. (“The Crystal Theater,” http://robbinsdalehistoricalsociety.org/the-crystal-theater/, accessed 25 July 2016.); Dave Kenney, Twin Cities Picture Show: A Century of Moviegoing (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2010), 117.

[8] The State Historical Society of Missouri, “Carl and Robert Boller,” www.shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/b/boller/.

[9] Minneapolis Building Permit B293550, May 19, 1947.

[10] In the decade between 1940 and 1950, the village of Robbinsdale’s population expanded by 87%, from approximately 1400 people to 11,289. Peter James Ward Richie, Images of America: Robbinsdale (Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2014), 108.

[11] Ward Richie, Images of America: Robbinsdale, 109.

[12] Minnesota Historical Aerial Photographs Online, https://www.lib.umn.edu/apps/mhapo/, accessed 27 July 2016, A-18-051 (1945).

[13] Undated schematic drawing of Terrace Theatre, University of Minnesota Archives, Liebenberg & Kaplan papers.

[14] Larry Millett, Minnesota Modern: Architecture and Life Midcentury, (St. Paul: University of Minnesota Press, 2015): 137.

[15] “A Gem of the Lakes,” BoxOffice, August 4, 1951, 14.

[16] Hennepin County, Hennepin County Interactive Maps, "PID: 0802924220026,” https://gis.hennepin.us/property/map/default.aspx?pid=0802924220027

[17] In 1952, the Robbinsdale Post reported construction costs in excess of $750,000.

[18] Terrace Theatre Advertisement, North Hennepin Post, May 24, 1951.

[19] “New Terrace Theatre Opened Wednesday,” North Hennepin Post, May 24, 1951, 1.

[20]Millett, Minnesota Modern, 137.

[21] Matt Novak, “Googie: Architecture of the Space Age,” Smithsonian.com http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/googie-architecture-of-the-space-age-122837470/?no-ist

[22] “A & M Karagheusian,” Wikipedia, last modified 10 January 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_%26_M_Karagheusian.

[23] R. D. McLain, “Theatre Air Conditioning,” Theatre Catalog (1954-1955): 337-338, http://drive-ins.com/theatrecatalog/1954/376#viewimage_.

[24] “A Gem of the Lake” BoxOffice, (August 4, 1951): 14-17.

[25] Larry Millett, Minnesota Modern: Architecture and Life Midcentury, (St. Paul: University of Minnesota Press, 2015): 139.

[26] Millett, Minnesota Modern, 138.

[27] “A Gem of the Lake,” BoxOffice, (August 4, 1951), 16.

[28] “A Gem of the Lake,” BoxOffice, (August 4, 1951): 14-17.

[29] “Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Timeline,” accessed July 27, 2016. http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3854; Refrigerating Engineering, Volume 60, (American Society of Refrigerating Engineers, 1952): 1200,

[30] BusinessWeek, (McGraw-Hill, 1951): 82.

[31] “A Gem of the Lake,” BoxOffice, (August 4, 1951): 14-17.

[32] R. D. McLain, “Theatre Air Conditioning,” Theatre Catalog (1954-1955): 337-338, http://drive-ins.com/theatrecatalog/1954/376#viewimage_.

[33] R. R. Endicott, editor Family Circle, correspondence to Mr. Volk, dated November 19, 1951, University of Minnesota, Northwest Architectural Archives, Liebenberg & Kaplan papers.

[34] Nancy M. Lewis, assistant editor Institutions Magazine, correspondence to Mr. Kaplan, dated March 13, 1952, University of Minnesota, Northwest Architectural Archives, Liebenberg & Kaplan papers.

[35] Star Tribune advertisement, ca. 1951, from University of Minnesota, Northwest Architectural Archives, Liebenberg & Kaplan papers. All emphasis original to article.

[36] https://robbinsdalehistoricalsociety.wordpress.com

[37] Kenney, Twin Cities Picture Show, 120.

[38] Kenney, 123.

[39] Dave Kenney, Twin Cities Picture Show, 120.

[40] Kenney Twin Cities Picture Show, 117.

[41] Kenney, 120.

[42] Will Jones, “Free Caviar Now, Tomorrow Caviar,” newspaper unknown, (August 23, 1951), University of Minnesota, Northwest Architectural Archives, Liebenberg & Kaplan papers.

[43] Louella Parsons, “Hollywood,” Corsicana Daily Sun (Texas), 6 May 1954, Thu, 23.

[44] Will Jones, “Free Caviar Now, Tomorrow Caviar,” newspaper unknown, August 23, 1951.

[45] Kenney, Twin Cities Picture Show, 120.

[46] Millett, Minnesota Modern, 138-139.

[47] Thomas L. Olson, “Blockbusters: Minnesota’s Movie Men Slug it out with Studio Moguls, 1938-1948,” http://www.minnesotalegalhistoryproject.org/assets/Olson%20--%20Blockbuster%20(2014)-XX.pdf, accessed on July 25, 2016.

[48] The Film Daily, Vol. 130, (Wid’s Films and Film Folk Inc., 1967): 6.

[49] Larry Millett, “Unique architecture wasn’t lost on patrons,” St. Paul Pioneer Press Dispatch, Nov. 11, 1988, 2C.

[50] Larry Millett, “From palace to multiplex—theater loses to ‘80s,” St. Paul Pioneer Press Dispatch, Nov. 11, 1988, 2A.

[51] Millett, Minnesota Modern, 139.

[52] Larry Millett, “From palace to multiplex—theater loses to ‘80s,” St. Paul Pioneer Press Dispatch, Nov. 11, 1988, 2A.

[53] Ibid.

PVN Staff